What does settlement collapse look like in the archaeological record? In this paper I examine the evidence of a claimed crisis and collapse of Jewish settlement in Eastern Galilee in the mid-fourth century CE. I argue that the same evidence cited as indicating collapse can be interpreted differently, supporting a picture of continued Jewish settlement through the fourth and fifth centuries. How can the same archaeological evidence be interpreted to support such different pictures? At stake is the methodology of using survey data, including the dating of pottery types collected in surveys as a basis for generating settlement maps. Although this case study focuses on fourth century Galilee, these fundamental principles of archaeology have a universal application.